The Difference Between Epilepsy and Seizures

The Difference Between Epilepsy and Seizures

What is a seizure?

To understand what a seizure is, you must first understand how the brain works. Your brain is comprised of thousands of neurons – cells that process and send information by interacting with each other. These interactions can be observed and accessed through an electroencephalogram (EEG).

In most brains, neuron interactions occur in a chaotic but balanced, orderly fashion with few disruptions. Occasionally, small disruptions (neuron misfires) may occur with little consequence. When multiple cells misfires at the same time – depending on the severity and place in the brain – it may cause muscle twitches and spasms. This is a seizure. A seizure is defined as a sudden, electrical discharge in the brain causing alterations in behavior, sensation, or consciousness.

The difference between “epilepsy” and “seizures”

Many believe that having a seizure equates to having epilepsy. Although the two terms are often used simultaneously, a seizure (which is a single occurrence) is different than epilepsy (which is defined as two or more unprovoked seizures).

Seizures that seem to begin everywhere in the brain at once are classified as generalized seizures, while those beginning in one area of the brain are classified as partial seizures.

The three stages of a seizure

Aura

The start of a partial seizure. When the aura is the only part a persons experience, they’ve had a simple partial seizure. If the seizure spreads and affects consciousness, it is known as a complex partial seizure. Type 3, if the seizure spreads to the rest of the brain, it is classified as a generalized seizure.

Ictus

Meaning stroke or attack, ictus is another word for the physical seizure.

Postictal

Meaning after the attack, postictal refers to the aftereffects of the seizure, e.g., arm numbness, loss of consciousness, partial paralysis, etc.

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